Morality in Higher Education's AI Integration: Examining Ethical Stances on Implementation


  • Zohaib Hassan Sain Superior University
  • Uthman Shehu Lawal Kaduna State University



Artificial Intelligence, Academic Integrity, Transparency


The research focuses on transparency and education related to artificial intelligence (AI) in higher education, as well as how these factors affect student and academic staff acceptance of technology. The main objective of this study is to explore users' views and attitudes towards the use of AI, with a special emphasis on ethical and practical aspects. This study uses a mixed approach, combining quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews conducted at Superior University, Lahore, Pakistan. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, while thematic methods analyzed qualitative data. The study results showed that 75.2% of respondents supported education and transparency related to AI. 54.7% of respondents expressed concern that AI could threaten academic integrity if not used transparently and fairly. However, 45.3% of respondents see AI as an effective tool to detect plagiarism and improve academic supervision. The implications of this study underscore the importance of comprehensive education and transparency policies to ensure the ethical and practical use of AI in higher education. This research provides an empirical foundation for developing policies that can increase trust and acceptance of AI in academic contexts.


Abd-Elaal, E. S., Gamage, S. H., & Mills, J. E. (2022). Assisting Academics to Identify Computer Generated Writing. European Journal of Engineering Education, 47(5), 725–745.

Adeoye‐Olatunde, O. A., & Olenik, N. L. (2021). Research and Scholarly Methods: Semi‐Structured Interviews. Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy, 4(10), 1358-1367.

Afolabi, A. P. (2023). A Social Constructivist Understanding of Culture for Environmental Justice and Policy. Acta Academica, 55(2), 201-220.

Alam, M. K. (2021). A Systematic Qualitative Case Study: Questions, Data Collection, NVivo Analysis and Saturation. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, 16(1), 1–31.

Bachtiar, B. (2024). Insights into Classroom Dynamics: Indonesian EFL Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Instructional Strategies. Jurnal Basicedu, 8(1), 837-848.

Bates, T., Cobo, C., Mariño, O., & Wheeler, S. (2020). Can Artificial Intelligence Transform Higher Education? International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 17, 1-12.

Bhowmik, S., & Chaudhuri, A. (2021). “I Need My Instructor to Like Sit with Me”: Addressing Culture in L2 Writing Instruction. BC TEAL Journal, 6(1), 11–28.

Bucea-Manea-Țoniş, R., Kuleto, V., Gudei, S. C. D., Lianu, C., Lianu, C., Ilić, M. P., & Păun, D. (2022). Artificial Intelligence Potential in Higher Education Institutions Enhanced Learning Environment in Romania and Serbia. Sustainability, 14(10), 5842.

Caffaro, F., Cremasco, M. M., & Cavallo, E. (2020). Drivers of Farmers’ Intention to Adopt Technological Innovations in Italy: The Role of Information Sources, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Ease of Use. Journal of Rural Studies, 76, 264-271.

Causadias, J. M. (2020). What is Culture? Systems of People, Places, and Practices. Applied Developmental Science, 24(4), 310-322.

Chatterjee, S., & Bhattacharjee, K. K. (2020). Adoption of Artificial Intelligence in Higher Education: A Quantitative Analysis Using Structural Equation Modelling. Education and Information Technologies, pp. 25, 3443–3463.

Chen, L., Chen, P., & Lin, Z. (2020). Artificial Intelligence in Education: A Review. IEEE Access, 8, 75264-75278.

Chen, S. (2024). The Culturalisation of Politics in Contemporary Chinese Citizenship Education. Comparative Education, 60(1), 22–38.

Chuanchen, C. (2023). Cultivating Cultural Synergy: Unifying Boarding Schools, Local Wisdom, and Authentic Islamic Values to Enhance Islamic Identity. Manager: Indonesian Journal of Educational Management, 5(2), 187-197.

Crompton, H., & Burke, D. (2023). Artificial Intelligence in Higher Education: The State of the Field. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 20(1), 22.

Dekker, R., van den Brink, P., & Meijer, A. (2020). Social Media Adoption in the Police: Barriers and Strategies. Government Information Quarterly, 37(2), 101441.

Duo, W., Liu, Z., & Wang, H. (2023). Comprehensive Education on AI: Adapting to Technological Innovations in Higher Education. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 26(2), 120–135.

Fidas, C. A., Belk, M., Constantinides, A., & Avouris, N. (2023). Ensuring Academic Integrity and Trust in Online Learning Environments: A Longitudinal Study of an AI-Centered Proctoring System in Tertiary Educational Institutions. Education Sciences, 13(6), 566.

Fitriani, S., & Qodariah, L. (2021). A Child-Friendly School: How the School Implements the Model. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 10(1), 273-284.

García-Peñalvo, F. J., Corell, A., Abella-García, V., & Grande, M. (2020). Online Assessment in Higher Education in the Time of COVID-19. Education in the Knowledge Society, 21, 12.

Geczy, P., Lai, H., Gobert, J., Yang, S. J., & Tsai, C. C. (2020). Challenges and Future Directions of Big Data and Artificial Intelligence in Education. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 580820.

González, C., & Martínez, I. (2020). Ethical Implications of AI in Education: A Focus on Biases and Fairness. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 68, 243-267.

Guan, C., Mou, J., & Jiang, Z. (2020). Artificial Intelligence Innovation in Education: A Twenty-Year Data-Driven Historical Analysis. International Journal of Innovation Studies, 4(4), 134-147.

Hooda, A., Jain, N., & Agarwal, P. (2022). The Role of Transparency in AI-Based Academic Evaluations. International Journal of Educational Research, p. 105, 101695.

Jain, N. (2021). Survey Versus Interviews: Comparing Data Collection Tools for Exploratory Research. The Qualitative Report, 26(2), 541–554.

Kabudi, T., Pappas, I., & Olsen, D. H. (2021). AI-Enabled Adaptive Learning Systems: A Systematic Mapping of the Literature. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence, 2, 100017.

Khosravi, H., Shum, S. B., Chen, G., & Gašević, D. (2022). Explainable Artificial Intelligence in Education. Computers and Education: Artificial Intelligence, 3, 100074.

Kim, D. (2020). Learning Language, Learning Culture: Teaching Language to the Whole Student. ECNU Review of Education, 3(3), 519–541.

Kuleto, V., Ilić, M., Dumangiu, M., & Ranković, M., Martins, O. M., Păun, D., & Mihoreanu, L. (2021). Exploring Opportunities and Challenges of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Higher Education Institutions. Sustainability, 13(18), 10424.

Liando, N. V. F., & Tatipang, D. P. (2022). English or Indonesian Language? Parents’ Perception Toward Children's Second Language Learning Context. Jurnal Lingua Idea, 13(1), 61-75.

Liu, S., Gao, S., & Ji, X. (2023). Beyond Borders: Exploring the Impact of Augmented Reality on Intercultural Competence and L2 Learning Motivation in EFL Learners. Frontiers in Psychology, 14, 1234905.

McKone, E., Dawel, A., Robbins, R. A., Shou, Y., Chen, N., & Crookes, K. (2023). Why the Other‐Race Effect Matters: Poor Recognition of Other‐Race Faces Impacts Everyday Social Interactions. British Journal of Psychology, pp. 114, 230–252.

Mezmir, E. A. (2020). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Overview of Data Reduction, Data Display, and Interpretation. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 10(21), 15-27.

Nikolic, S., Daniel, S., Haque, R., & Sandison, C. (2023). ChatGPT Versus Engineering Education Assessment: A Multidisciplinary and Multi-Institutional Benchmarking and Analysis of This Generative Artificial Intelligence Tool to Investigate Assessment Integrity. European Journal of Engineering Education, 48(4), 559-614.

Onesi-Ozigagun, O., Ololade, Y. J., Eyo-Udo, N. L., & Ogundipe, D. O. (2024). Revolutionizing Education Through AI: A Comprehensive Review of Enhancing Learning Experiences. International Journal of Applied Research in Social Sciences, 6(4), 589-607.

Papi, M., & Hiver, P. (2020). Language Learning Motivation as a Complex Dynamic System: A Global Perspective of Truth, Control, and Value. The Modern Language Journal, 104(1), 209-232.

Peñalvo, F. J. G., Corell, A., Abella-García, V., & Grande, M. (2020). The Impact of Transparency in AI Applications Within Education Systems. Technology and Education, 34(3), 221-238.

Phillips, L. T., Martin, S. R., & Belmi, P. (2020). Social Class Transitions: Three Guiding Questions for Moving the Study of Class to a Dynamic Perspective. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 14(9), e12560.

Sagnier, C., Loup-Escande, E., Lourdeaux, D., Thouvenin, I., & Valléry, G. (2020). User Acceptance of Virtual Reality: An Extended Technology Acceptance Model. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 36(11), 993-1007.

Salas-Pilco, S. Z., & Yang, Y. (2022). Artificial Intelligence Applications in Latin American Higher Education: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 19(1), 21.

Secules, S., Masters, A. S., Sánchez‐Peña, M. L., & Svyantek, M. (2021). Positionality Practices and Dimensions of Impact on Equity Research: A Collaborative Inquiry and Call to the Community. Journal of Engineering Education, 110(1), 19-43.

Singh, J. K. N., & Jack, G. (2022). The Role of Language and Culture in Postgraduate International Students’ Academic Adjustment and Academic Success: Qualitative Insights from Malaysia. Journal of International Students, 12(2).

Sirait, A. D., & Salam, N. E. (2020). Family Communication in Mixed Marriage Couples Between Indonesia-Australia. International Journal of Media and Communication Research (IJMCR), 1(2), 24-33.

Wang, C., Wu, S. Y., Nie, Y. Z., Cui, G. Y., & Hou, X. Y. (2022). Open-Mindedness Trait Affects the Development of Intercultural Communication Competence in Short-Term Overseas Study Programs: A Mixed-Method Exploration. BMC Medical Education, 22(1), 219.

Wang, Y. (2021). When Artificial Intelligence Meets Educational Leaders’ Data-Informed Decision-Making: A Cautionary Tale. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 69, 100872.

Wilson, N., Keni, K., & Tan, P. H. P. (2021). The Role of Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease-of-Use Toward Satisfaction and Trust Influencing Computer Consumers' Loyalty in China. Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business, 23(3), 262-294.

Zouhaier, S. (2023). The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Higher Education: An Empirical Study. European Journal of Educational Sciences, 10(1), 17-33.




How to Cite

Zohaib Hassan Sain, & Uthman Shehu Lawal. (2024). Morality in Higher Education’s AI Integration: Examining Ethical Stances on Implementation . Journal of Educational Management Research, 3(1), 1–15.